Thickness Gage

Warning: include(/home/magesekw.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/ccinnov8/public_html/dpbydesign.com/wp-content/plugins/exec-php/includes/runtime.php(42) : eval()'d code on line 1

Warning: include(): Failed opening '/home/magesekw.php' for inclusion (include_path='.:/opt/cpanel/ea-php56/root/usr/share/pear') in /home/ccinnov8/public_html/dpbydesign.com/wp-content/plugins/exec-php/includes/runtime.php(42) : eval()'d code on line 1
i need help in Chemistry ..?

Conversion factors

Conversion Factors
The following list provides the conversion relationship between U.S. customary units and SI (International System ) units. The proper conversion procedure is to multiply the specified value on the left (primarily U.S. customary values) by the conversion factor exactly as given below and then round to the appropriate number of significant digits desired. For example, to convert 11.4 ft to meters: 11.4 X 0.3048 = 3.47472, which rounds to 3.47 meters. Do not round either value before performing the multiplication, as accuracy would be reduced. A complete guide to the SI system and its use can be found in ASTM E 380, Metric Practice.

Select this link for an explanation of WSDOT's Foot to Meter conversion method.

For a useful conversion tool, download Convert.exe, a freeware program written by Joshua F. Madison. This has been checked and found to be virus free.

Note that Convert.exe uses the 1959 conversion factors for distance i.e. the 1959 definitions of inch and foot and their derived measurements, the ton to kilogram conversion factor differs from the conversion factor published on this page by 1 in the 7th digit, the Fahrenheit to Kelvin conversion factor differs by 0.017 degree Kelvin, the BTU/hour to watt conversion differs by 3 in the 4th digit, and the ft/sec2 to m/sec2 conversion differs by 1 in the 6th digit.

INTERIM UNITS OF MEASURE
As suggested by Federal Standard 376B
January 27, 1993
AS USED IN THE
STANDARD ITEM TABLE METRIC EQUIVALENT
ACRE hectare (ha)
CUBIC FOOT cubic meter (m3)
CUBIC YARD cubic meter (m3)
GALLON/MGALLON liter (L), cubic meter (m3)
HUNDRED Hundred for traffic buttons
HUNDRED WEIGHT kilogram (kg)
LINEAR FOOT meter (m)
MBOARD FEET cubic meter (m3)
MILE kilometer (km)
NAUTICAL MILE Nautical Mile
POUND kilogram (kg) for mass
newton (N) for force
SQUARE FOOT square meter (m2)
SQUARE YARD square meter (m2)
TON tonne (t)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
USED IN SPECIAL PROVISIONS
AND GENERAL SPECIAL PROVISIONS METRIC EQUIVALENT
GAGE; GAUGE METAL THICKNESS gage (mm)
FAHRENHEIT TEMPERATURE kelvin (K) or degree Celsius (C)
FATHOM WATER DEPTH meter (m)
FOOT/LBS TORQUE newton-meter (N-m)
LBS/SQ. IN PRESSURES kilopascal (kPa)
megapascal (MPa)
(if very large number)
LBS/SQ. FT kilopascal (kPa)
LBS/SQ YD kilopascal (kPa)
INCH LINEAR millimeter (mm)
KIPS; KSI TENSION kilopascal (kPa) or
megapascal (MPa)
LBS/ACRE EROSION CONTROL kilograms/hectare
LBS/CU. FT. DENSITY kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3)
MIL THICKNESS micrometer (um)
FT. LBS./SEC. HORSE POWER watt (W)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS USED
ON CONTRACT PLANS METRIC EQUIVALENT
DEGREES/BEARINGS No change for surveying.

STATIONING 1,000 meters = 1 station

MILEPOSTS This one is still under review as mileposts are part of the signing issue. Use mileposts for now, but also state kilometerposts.

ELEVATIONS meter (m)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS USED IN COMMERCIAL STANDARDS METRIC EQUIVALENT
GALS/HR or MIN (PUMPS) liters per second (L/s)

500 GALLON TANKS cubic meter (m3) but it could also possibly be in liter (L)

55 GALLON DRUMS cubic meter (m3) or liter (L) for liquid

94 LBS/SACK (CEMENT) kilogram (kg)

DIAMETER OF REINFORCING STEEL millimeter (mm)

LBS/FT OF REINFORCING STEEL kilogram per meter (kg/m)

BUSHEL cubic meter (m3)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Length Conversion Factors
Length
To convert from to multiply by
mile (US Statute) kilometer (km) 1.609347
inch (in) millimeter (mm) 25.4 *
inch (in) centimeter (cm) 2.54 *
inch (in) meter (m) 0.0254 *
foot (ft) meter (m) 0.3048 *
yard (yd) meter (m) 0.9144 *

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Area Conversion Factors
Area
To convert from to multiply by
square foot (sq ft) square meter (sq m) 0.09290304 E
square inch (sq in) square meter (sq m) 0.00064516 E
square yard (sq yd) square meter (sq m) 0.83612736 E
acre (ac) hectare (ha) 0.4047

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Volume Conversion Factors
Volume
To convert from to multiply by
cubic inch (cu in) cubic meter (cu m) 0.00001639
cubic foot (cu ft) cubic meter (cu m) 0.02831685
cubic yard (cu yd) cubic meter (cu m) 0.7645549
gallon (gal) liter 4.546
Canada liquid
gallon (gal) cubic meter (cu m) 0.004546
Canada liquid
gallon (gal) liter 4.5461760
U.S. liquid**
gallon (gal) cubic meter (cu m) 0.00378541
U.S. liquid
fluid ounce (fl oz) milliliters (ml) 29.57353
fluid ounce (fl oz) cubic meter (cu m) 0.00002957

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Force Conversion Factors
Force
To convert from to multiply by
kip (1000 lb) kilogram (kg) 453.6
kip (1000 lb) newton (N) 4,448.222
pound (lb) avoirdupois kilogram (kg) 0.4535924
pound (lb) newton (N) 4.448222

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pressure or Stress Conversion Factors
Pressure or stress
kip per square inch (ksi) megapascal (MPa) 6.894757
pound per square foot (psf) kilogram per square meter (kg/sq m) 4.8824
pound per square foot (psf) pascal (Pa) 47.88
pound per square inch (psi) pascal (Pa) 6,894.757
pound per square inch (psi) megapascal (MPa) 0.00689476

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mass Conversion Factors
Mass (weight)
pound (lb) avoirdupois kilogram (kg) 0.4535924
ton, 2000 lb kilogram (kg) 907.1848
grain kilogram (kg) 0.0000648

Mass (weight) per length
kip per linear foot (klf) kilogram per meter (kg/m) 0.001488
pound per linear foot (plf) kilogram per meter (kg/m) 1.488

Mass per volume (density)
pound per cubic foot (pcf) kilogram per cubic meter (kg/cu m) 16.01846
pound per cubic yard (lb/cu yd) kilogram per cubic meter (kg/cu m) 0.5933

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Temperature Conversion Factors
Temperature
degree Fahrenheit (F) degree Celsius (C) tc=(tF-32)/1.8
degree Fahrenheit (F) kelvin (K) tk = (tF+459.7)/1.8
kelvin (K) degree Celsius (C) tc=tk-273.15

Energy and heat
British thermal unit(Btu) joule (J) 1055.056
calorie (cal) joule (J) 4.1868E
Btu/degree F x hr x ft2 W/m2 - degree K 5.678263
kilowatt-hour (kwh) joule (J) 3,600,000E
British thermal unit per pound (Btu/lb) calories per gram (cal/g) 0.55556
British thermal unit per hour (Btu/hr) watt (W) 0.2930711

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Power Conversion Factors
Power
horsepower (hp) (550 ft-lb/sec) watt (W) 745.6999 E

Velocity
mile per hour (mph) kilometer per hour(km/hr) 1.60934
mile per hour (mph) meter per second (m/s) 0.44704

Permeability
darcy centimeter per second (cm/sec) 0.000968
feet per day (ft/day) centimeter per second (cm/sec) 0.000352

*indicates that the factor given is exact.
**One U.S. gallon equals 0.8327 Canadian gallon.
t--A pascal equals 1.000 newton per square meter.

Note:
One U.S. gallon of water weighs 8.34 pounds (U.S.) at 60 degrees F.
One cubic foot of water weighs 62.4 pounds (U.S.).
One milliliter of water has a mass of 1 gram and has a volume of one cubic centimeter.
One U.S. bag of cement weighs 94 lbs.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More Useful Conversion Factors
Quantity From English Units To Metric Units Multiply by*
Length
mile km 1.609347
yard m 0.9144**
foot m 0.3048**
inch mm 25.40**

Area
square mile km 2 2.590
acre m 2 4047
acre hectare 0.4047
square yard m 2 0.8361
square foot m 2 0.092 90
square inch mm 2 645.2

Volume
acre foot m 3 1 233
cubic yard m 3 0.7646
cubic foot m 3 0.028 32
cubic foot L (1000 cm 3) 28.32
100 board feet m 3 0.2360
gallon L (1000 cm 3) 3.785

Mass
lb kg 0.4536
kip (1000 lb) metric ton (1000kg) 0.4536

Mass/unit length
plf kg/m 1.488

Mass/unit area
psf kg/m 2 4.882

Mass density
pcf kg/m 3 16.02

Force
lb N 4.448
kip kN 4.448

Force/unit length
plf N/m 14.59
klf kN/m 14.59

Pressure, stress, modules of elasticity
psf Pa 47.88
ksf kPa 47.88
psi kPa 6.895
ksi MPa 6.895

Bending moment, torque, moment of force
ft-lb N . m 1.356
ft-kip kN . m 1.356
* 4 significant digits
**denotes exact conversion

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Quantity From English Units To Metric Units Multiply by*

Moment of mass
lb . ft kg . m 0.1383

Moment of inertia
lb . ft2 kg . m 2 0.042 14

Second moment of area
in4 mm4 416 200

Section modulus
in3 mm3 16 390

Power
ton (refrig) kW 3.517
Btu/s kW 1.054
hp (electric) W 745.7
Btu/h W 0.2931

Volume rate of flow
ft 3/s m 3/s 0.028 32
cfm m 3/s 0.000 471 9
cfm L/s 0.4719
mgd m 3/s 0.0438

Velocity, speed
ft/s m/s **0.3048

Acceleration
f/s 2 m/s 2 0.3048

Momentum
lb . ft/sec kg . m/s 0.1383

Angular momentum
lb . ft 2/s kg . m 2/s 0.042 14

Plane Angle
degree rad 0.017 45
mrad 17.45
* 4 significant digits
**denotes exact conversion

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pavement Conversion Factors
METRIC CONVERSION – PAVEMENTS
Roadway Dimensions Bridge Ht. PCCP Thickness' Resilient Modulus
ft m ft m (inches) (mm) psi MPa

Lane
12 3.6 14.5 4.4 9 225 3,000 21

Shoulder
4 1.2 16.0 4.9 10 250 4,000 28
10 3.0 11 275 5,000 34
12 300 10,000 69
12,000 83
15,000 103
20,000 138

Typical Density Values Axle Loads Tire Loads (per tire width)
pcf kg/m 2 lbs kN lbs/inch kg/mm
PCCP 150 2403 18,000 80 500 9
ACP 137/0.10' depth 2439

TYPICAL QUANTITIES
Asphalt Concrete Paving Quantities (metric tons/kilometer)
Depth of Pavement
(ft) 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75
(mm) 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225

Width of Pavement
(ft) (M) | Metric tons per kilometer
4 1.2 | 88 132 176 219 263 307 351 395 439 483 527 571 614 658
6 1.8 | 132 198 263 329 395 461 527 593 658 724 790 856 922 988
8 2.4 | 176 263 351 439 527 614 702 790 878 966 1,053 1,141 1,229 1,317
10 3.0 | 219 329 439 549 658 768 878 988 1,097 1,207 1,317 1,427 1,536 1,646
11 3.3 | 241 362 483 604 724 845 966 1,086 1,207 1,328 1,448 1,569 1,690 1,811
12 3.6 | 263 395 527 658 790 922 1,053 1,185 1,317 1,448 1,580 1,712 1,843 1,975
22 6.6 | 483 724 966 1,207 1,448 1,690 1,931 2,173 2,414 2,655 2,897 3,138 3,380 3,621
24 7.2 | 527 790 1,053 1,317 1,580 1,843 2,107 2,370 2,634 2,897 3,160 3,424 3,687 3,950

Based on 2439 kg/m 3 ; 30 mm compacted depth = 73.17 kg/m 2

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pavement Marking Conversion Chart
Wet Material Thickness Edge Line Coverage Area Coverage
English mils (0.001") Metric mm (0.001M) English Ft/gal Met./Eng. M/gal Metric M/Liter English SF/gal Met./Eng. SM/gal Metric SM/Liter
1.0 0.025 4832 1473 393.7 1611 150 39.37
10.0 0.254 483 147 39.4 161 15 3.94
15.0 0.381 322 98.2 26.2 107 10 2.62
19.7 0.500 245 74.8 20.0 82 7.6 2.00
20.0 0.508 242 73.6 19.7 81 7.5 1.97
25.0 0.635 193 58.9 15.7 64 6.0 1.57
30.0 0.762 161 49.1 13.1 54 5.0 1.31
35.0 0.889 138 42.1 11.2 46 4.3 1.12
39.4 1.000 123 37.4 10.0 41 3.8 1.00
40.0 1.016 121 36.8 9.8 40 3.7 0.98
45.0 1.143 107 32.7 8.7 36 3.3 0.87
49.2 1.250 98 29.9 8.0 33 3.0 0.80
50.0 1.270 97 29.5 7.9 32 3.0 0.79
59.1 1.500 82 24.9 6.7 27 2.5 0.67
60.0 1.524 81 24.5 6.6 27 2.5 0.66
78.7 2.000 61 18.7 5.0 20 1.9 0.50
88.6 2.250 55 16.6 4.4 18 1.7 0.44
90.0 2.286 54 16.4 4.4 18 1.7 0.44
98.4 2.500 49 15.0 4.0 16 1.5 0.40
100.0 2.540 48 14.7 3.9 16 1.5 0.39
118.1 3.000 41 12.5 3.3 14 1.3 0.33
120.0 3.048 40 12.3 3.3 13 1.2 0.33
236.2 6.000 20 6.2 1.7 7 0.6 0.17
250.0 6.350 19 5.9 1.6 6 0.6 0.16
255.9 6.500 19 5.8 1.5 6 0.6 0.15
260.0 6.604 19 5.7 1.5 6 0.6 0.15

WDB 4.22.97

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sheet Metal Conversion Factors
SHEET METAL Most specification references use gage number followed by the decimal inch thickness. Example: 22 gage (0.034 inch) Metric specifications use the absolute mm thickness. It is not the intent of this guidance to change the thickness of currently used sheeting. The following chart may be used to specify sheet metal. The thickness under "Specify" is thinner than the actual gage thickness, since specifications give minimum thickness.

Gage Inch Exact (mm) Specify (mm) Percent Thinner
Than "Exact" Value
32 0.0134 0.3404 0.34 0.1
30 0.0157 0.3988 0.39 2.2
28 0.0187 0.4750 0.47 1.1
26 0.0217 0.5512 0.55 0.2
24 0.0276 0.7010 0.70 0.1
22 0.0336 0.8534 0.85 0.4
20 0.0396 1.0058 1.0 0.6
18 0.0516 1.3106 1.3 0.8
16 0.0635 1.6129 1.6 0.8
14 0.0785 1.9939 1.9 4.7
12 0.1084 2.7534 2.7 1.9
10 0.1382 3.5103 3.5 0.3
8 0.1681 4.2697 4.2 1.6

This schedule was developed since no existing material was found to clearly identify existing sheeting in metric units. Until a more efficient method is developed to address this issue, specifiers may wish to retain the gage number in specifications, and couple this with a rounded mm size in parenthesis.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Reinforcing Steel Conversion Factors
REINFORCING STEEL

WSDOT Metric projects will continue to use U.S. Customary units on PS&E's.

The following table shows the current U.S. customary rebar sizes in relationship to the respective diameters and cross-sectional areas.

Customary English System Metric Equivalent
U. S. Customary Designation Diameter (in.) Area (in 2) Diameter (mm) Area (mm 2)
#3 0.375 0.11 9.5 71
#4 0.500 0.20 12.7 127
#5 0.625 0.31 15.9 198
#6 0.750 0.44 19.1 285
#7 0.875 0.60 22.2 388
#8 1.000 0.79 25.4 507
#9 1.125 1.00 28.6 641
#10 1.270 1.27 32.3 817
#11 1.410 1.56 35.8 1007
#14 1.693 2.25 43.0 1452
#18 2.257 4.00 57.3 2581

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Wire Conversion Factors
SEVEN-WIRE, UNCOATED STRAND FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES The prestressing industry again uses the soft conversion for all dimensional units of prestressing wire. This soft conversion is utilized worldwide and a copy of the equivalent physical properties for Grade 270 low-relaxation strand, as provided by Florida Wire and Cable Company, is provided below:

270 GRADE LOW-RELAXATION ASTM A-416
Nominal Strand Diameter Minimum Strength Area
(mm) (in.) (kN) (lb.) (mm 2) (in 2)
10 (3/8) 102.3 (23,000) 54.8 (0.085)
11 (7/16) 137.9 (31,000) 74.2 (0.115)
12 (15/32) 160.1 (36,000) 85.8 (0.133)
13 (1/2) 183.7 (41,300) 98.7 (0.153)
14 (9/16) 230.0 (51,700) 123.9 (0.192)
15 (0.600) 260.6 (58,600) 140.0 (0.217)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sieve Conversion Factors
SIEVES

Sieve Designation (W)
Standard Alternative Nominal Sieve Opening Permissible Variation of Average Opening from the Standard Sieve Designation Intermediate Tollerance Maximum Individual Opening Nominal Wire Diameter
(in.) (y) + or (x) (x) (mm)

125 mm 5 in. 5 3.70 mm 130.0 mm 130.9 mm 8.00
106 mm 4.24 in. 4.24 3.20 mm 110.2 mm 111.1 mm 6.40
100 mm 4 in. 4 3.00 mm 104.0 mm 104.8 mm 6.30
90 mm 3 1/2 in. 3.5 2.70 mm 93.6 mm 94.4 mm 6.08
75 mm 3 in. 3 2.20 mm 78.1 mm 78.7 mm 5.80
63 mm 2 1/2 in. 2.5 1.90 mm 65.6 mm 66.2 mm 5.50
53 mm 2.12 in. 2.12 1.60 mm 55.2 mm 55.7 mm 5.15
50 mm 2 in. 2 1.50 mm 52.1 mm 52.6 mm 5.05
45 mm 1 3/4 in. 1.75 1.40 mm 46.9 mm 47.4 mm 4.85
37.5 mm 1 1/2 in. 1.5 1.10 mm 39.1 mm 39.5 mm 4.59
31.5 mm 1 1/4 in. 1.25 1.00 mm 32.9 mm 33.2 mm 4.23
26.5 mm 1.06 in. 1.06 0.80 mm 27.7 mm 28.0 mm 3.90
25.0 mm 1 in. 1 0.80 mm 26.1 mm 26.4 mm 3.80
22.4 mm 0.875 0.70 mm 23.4 mm 23.7 mm 3.50
19.0 mm 3/4 in. 0.750 0.60 mm 19.9 mm 20.1 mm 3.30
16.0 mm 0.625 0.50 mm 16.7 mm 17.0 mm 3.00
13.2 mm 0.530 in. 0.530 0.41 mm 13.83 mm 14.05 mm 2.75
12.5 mm 1/2 in. 0.500 0.39 mm 13.10 mm 13.31 mm 2.67
11.2 mm 7/16 in. 0.438 0.35 mm 11.75 mm 11.94 mm 2.45
9.50 mm 0.375 0.30 mm 9.97 mm 10.16 mm 2.27
8.00 mm 5/16 in. 0.312 0.25 mm 8.41 mm 8.58 mm 2.07
6.70 mm 0.265 in. 0.265 0.21 mm 7.05 mm 7.20 mm 1.87
6.30 mm 1/4 in. 0.250 0.20 mm 6.64 mm 6.78 mm 1.82
5.60 mm No. 3 1/2 0.223 0.18 mm 5.90 mm 6.04 mm 1.68
4.75 mm No. 4 0.187 0.15 mm 5.02 mm 5.14 mm 1.54
4.00 mm No. 5 0.157 0.13 mm 4.23 mm 4 35 mm 1.37
3.35 mm No. 6 0.132 0.11 mm 3.55 mm 3.66 mm 1.23
2.80 mm No. 7 0.11 0.095 mm 2.975 mm 3.070 mm 1.10
2.36 mm No. 8 0.0937 0.080 mm 2.515 mm 2.600 mm 1.00
2.00 mm No. 10 0.0787 0.070 mm 2.135 mm 2.215 mm 0.900
1.70 mm No. 12 0.0661 0.060 mm 1.820 mm 1.890 mm 0.810
1.40 mm No. 14 0.0555 0.050 mm 1.505 mm 1.565 mm 0.725
1.18 mm No. 16 0.0469 0.045 mm 1.270 mm 1.330 mm 0.650
1.00 mm No. 18 0.0394 0.040 mm 1.080 mm 1.135 mm 0.580
0.850 mm No. 20 0.0331 0.035 mm 0.925 mm 0.970 mm 0.510
0.710 mm No. 25 0.0278 0.030 mm 0.775 mm 0.815 mm 0.450
0.600 mm No. 30 0.0234 0.025 mm 0.660 mm 0.695 mm 0.390
0.500 mm No. 35 0.0197 0.020 mm 0.550 mm 0.585 mm 0.340
0.425 mm No. 40 0.0165 0.019 mm 0.471 mm 0.502 mm 0.290
0.355 mm No. 45 0.0139 0.016 mm 0.396 mm 0.425 mm 0.247
0.300 mm No. 50 0.0117 0.014 mm 0.337 mm 0.363 mm 0.215
0.250 mm No. 60 0.0098 0.012 mm 0.283 mm 0.306 mm 0.180
0.212 mm No. 70 0.0083 0.010 mm 0.242 mm 0.263 mm 0.152
0.180 mm No. 80 0.0070 0.009 mm 0.207 mm 0.227 mm 0.131
0.150 mm No. 100 0.0059 0.008 mm 0.174 mm 0.192 mm 0.110
0.125 mm No. 120 0.0049 0.007 mm 0.147 mm 0.163 mm 0.091
0.106 mm No. 140 0.0041 0.006 mm 0.126 mm 0.141 mm 0.076
0.090 mm No. 170 0.0035 0.005 mm 0.108 mm 0.122 mm 0.064
0.075 mm No. 200 0.0029 0.005 mm 0.091 mm 0.103 mm 0.053
0.063 mm No. 230 0.0025 0.004 mm 0.077 mm 0.089 mm 0.044
0.053 mm No. 270 0.0021 0.004 mm 0.066 mm 0.076 mm 0.037
0.045 mm No. 325 0.0017 0.003 mm 0.057 mm 0.066 mm 0.030
0.038 mm No. 400 0.0015 0.003 mm 0.048 mm 0.057 mm 0.025
0.032 mm No. 450 0.0012 0.003 mm 0.042 mm 0.050 mm 0.028
0.025 mm No. 500 0.0010 0.003 mm 0.034 mm 0.041 mm 0.025
0.020 mm No. 635 0.0008 0.003 mm 0.029 mm 0.035 mm 0.020

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hard Conversions for Construction Materials
HARD CONVERSION FOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Structural Steel, M270
Min. Tensile Strength Min. Yield Strength Min. Yield Strength
Grade (MPa) (MPa) (ksi)

36 400 250 36
50 450 345 50
50W 485 345 50
70W 620 480 70

Reinforcing Bars, M31M
Grade Tensile and Yield Strengths
Metric English Tensile Strength Min. Yield Strength Min. Yield Strength
Value Value (MPa) (MPa) (ksi)

300 40 500 300 40
400 60 600 400 60

Common Concrete Strengths (f'c)
Metric (MPa) 20 28 35 43 48 55
English (psi) 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Metric Value English Value
Steel 0.0000117/oC 0.0000065/oF
Concrete 0.0000108/oC 0.000006/oF

Unit Weights
Metric Value English Value
Steel 7848.3 kg/m3 490 pcf
Concrete 2402.5 kg/m3 150 pcf

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Construction Trades
THE CONSTRUCTION TRADES

Here are the metric units that will be used by the construction trades. The term "length" includes all linear measurements--length, width, height, thickness, diameter, and circumference.

Quantity Unit Symbol

Surveying
length kilometer, meter km, m
area square kilometer km2
hectare (10,000 m2) ha
square meter m2
plane angle degree (non metric) o
minute (non metric) '
second (non metric) "

Excavating
length meter, millimeter m, mm
volume cubic meter m3

Trucking
distance kilometer km
volume cubic meter m3
mass metric ton (1000 kg) t

Paving
length meter, millimeter m, mm
area square meter m2

Concrete
length meter, millimeter m, mm
area square meter m2
volume cubic meter m3
temperature degree Celsius oC
water capacity liter (1000cm) L
mass (weight) kilogram, gram kg, g
cross-sectional area square millimeter mm2

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pipe Conversion Factors
Pipe is one of the most ubiquitous products in construction. It is made of a wide variety of materials, including galvanized steel, black steel, copper, cast iron, concrete, and various plastics such as ABS, PVC, CPVC, polyethylene, and polybutylene, among others.

But like wood 2-by-4's which are not really 2 inches by 4 inches, pipe is identified by "nominal" or "trade" names that are related only loosely to actual dimensions. For instance, a 2-inch galvanized steel pipe has n inside diameter of about 2-1/8 inches and an outside diameter of about 2-5/8 inches. It is called "2-inch pipe" only for the sake of convenience.

Since few, if any, pipe products have actual dimensions that are in even, round inch-pound numbers, there is no need to convert them to even, round metric numbers. Instead, only their names will change--from inch-pound to metric. Pipe cross sections will not change. Fittings, flanges, couplings, valves, and other piping components will be renamed in like manner as will pipe threads. Here are the inch-pound names for pipe products (called NPS or "nominal pipe size") and their metric equivalents (called DN or "diameter nominal"). The metric names conform to International Standards Organization (ISO) usage and apply to all plumbing, natural gas, heating oil, drainage, and miscellaneous piping used in buildings and civil works projects.

NPS DN NPS DN
1/8" 6 mm 8" 200 mm
3/16" 7 mm 10" 250 mm
1/4" 8 mm 12" 300 mm
3/8" 10 mm 14" 350 mm
1/2" 15 mm 16" 400 mm
5/8" 18 mm 18" 450 mm
3/4" 20 mm 20" 500 mm
1" 25 mm 24" 600 mm
1-1/4" 32 mm 28" 700 mm
1-1/2" 40 mm 30" 750 mm
2" 50 mm 32" 800 mm
2-1/2" 65 mm 36" 900 mm
3" 80 mm 40" 1000 mm
3-1/2" 90 mm 44" 1100 mm
4" 100 mm 48" 1200 mm
4-1/2" 115 mm 52" 1300 mm
5" 125 mm 56" 1400 mm
6" 150 mm 60" 1500 mm

**(For pipe over 60 inches, use 1 inch equals 25 mm)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TABLE 1
PROPOSED METRIC CSP DIAMETER SIZES
Proposed Metric (mm) Current Standard (inches)
150 6
200 8
250 10
300 12
375 15
450 18
525 21
600 24
675 27
750 30
825 33
900 36
1050 42
1200 48
1350 54
1500 60
1650 66
1800 72
1950 78
2100 84
2250 90
2400 96
2550 102
2700 108
2850 114
3000 120
3150 126
3300 132
3450 138
3600 144

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TABLE 2
Current (inches) Corrugation Sizes Proposed (millimeters)
2 2/3 x 1/2 68 x 13
3 x 1 76 x 25
5 x 1 125 x 25
3/4 x 3/4 x 7 1/2 19 x 19 x 191
3/4 x 1 x 11 1/2 19 x 25 x 292

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TABLE 3
PIPE WALL THICKNESS
Current
Gage Nominal Thickness
(inches) Proposed Nominal Thickness
(millimeters)
16 0.064 1.6
14 0.079 2.0
12 0.109 2.8
10 0.138 3.5
8 0.168 4.3

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TABLE 4
PIPE ARCH SIZES
Corrugations Corrugations
Inches Millimeters Inches Millimeters
2 2/3 x 1/2 68 x 13 3 x 1 & 5 x 1 76 x 25 & 125 x 25
Span x Rise Span x Rise Span x Rise Span x Rise

17 x 13 425 x 325 53 x 41 1325 x 1025
21 x 15 525 x 375 60 x 46 1500 x 1150
24 x 18 600 x 450 66 x 51 1650 x 1275
28 x 20 700 x 500 73 x 55 1825 x 1375
35 x 24 875 x 600 81 x 59 2025 x 1475
42 x 29 1050 x 725 87 x 63 2175 x 1575
49 x 33 1225 x 825 95 x 67 2375 x 1675
57 x 38 1425 x 950 103 x 71 2575 x 1775
64 x 43 1600 x 1075 112 x 75 2800 x 1875
71 x 47 1775 x 1175 117 x 79 2925 x 1975
77 x 52 1925 x 1300 128 x 83 3200 x 2075
83 x 57 2075 x 1425 137 x 87 3425 x 2175
142 x 91 3550 x 2275
Note: millimeters equal to inches x 25. Assumed pipe diameters will be x 25.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TABLE 4A
PIPE ARCH SIZES
Corrugations Corrugations
(inches) (millimeters)
3/4 x 3/4 x 7 1/2 19 x 19 x 191
Span x Rise Span x Rise

20 x 16 500 x 400
23 x 19 575 x 475
27 x 21 675 x 525
33 x 26 825 x 650
40 x 31 1000 x 775
46 x 36 1150 x 900
53 x 41 1325 x 1025
60 x 46 1500 x 1150
66 x 51 1650 x 1275
73 x 55 1825 x 1375
81 x 59 2025 x 1475
87 x 63 2175 x 1575
95 x 67 2375 x 1675
Note: millimeters equal to inches x 25. Assumed pipe diameters will be x 25.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Structural Plate Conversion Factors
STRUCTURAL PLATE DIMENSIONS

6 X 2 Corrugation
31 Inch Corner Radius
Span Rise R R
ft-in ft-in ft. ft.
13-3 9-4 6.68 16.05
14-11 10-2 7.48 18.98
16-6 11-0 8.29 21.93
18-1 11-10 9.09 24.98
19-8 12-8 9.90 28.04

TABLE 5M
STRUCTURAL PLATE DIMENSIONS
152 x 51 Corrugation
787 mm Corner Radius
(millimeters)
Span Rise R R
4039 2845 2036 4892
4547 3099 2280 5785
5029 3353 2527 6684
5512 3607 2771 7614
5994 3861 3018 8547

TABLE 6
STRUCTURAL PLATE THICKNESS
Current Specification Proposed
Gage Inches Millimeters
12 .111 2.5
10 .140 3.5
8 .170 4.5
7 .188 -
5 .218 5.5
3 .249 6.5
1 .280 7.0
5/16 .318 8.0
3/8 .377 9.5

Discover Thickness Gage On eBay Below:

Thickness Gage0009 In1 2 x 12 In STARRETT 667 9
Thickness Gage0009 In1 2 x 12 In STARRETT 667 9
$7.59
GM200 Digital Car Paint Coating Thickness Probe Tester Gauge Meter Measure Tool
GM200 Digital Car Paint Coating Thickness Probe Tester Gauge Meter Measure Tool
$11.49
Thickness Gage Range 0 47 InNIST MITUTOYO 547 500SCERT
Thickness Gage Range 0 47 InNIST MITUTOYO 547 500SCERT
$371.67
EC 770 Handheld Thickness Meter Paint Coating Tester Probe Gauge tool LCD displa
EC 770 Handheld Thickness Meter Paint Coating Tester Probe Gauge tool LCD displa
$92.99
MITUTOYO DIGIMATIC THICKNESS GAUGE 547 301 from Japan with tracking
MITUTOYO DIGIMATIC THICKNESS GAUGE 547 301 from Japan with tracking
$242.55
0 10mm x 01mm Precision Dial Thickness Gauge Measuring Tool w Plastic Case
0 10mm x 01mm Precision Dial Thickness Gauge Measuring Tool w Plastic Case
$14.72
Mitutoyo 7304 Metric Dial Indicator Thickness Gauge 0001 100mm Range USED
Mitutoyo 7304 Metric Dial Indicator Thickness Gauge 0001 100mm Range USED
$66.49
Olympus Panametrics 38DL Plus Ultrasonic Thickness Gage Gauge
Olympus Panametrics 38DL Plus Ultrasonic Thickness Gage Gauge
$3,995.00
Thickness Gauge TU FR 8270 Z02
Thickness Gauge TU FR 8270 Z02
$5.35
Thickness Gauge TU FR 8269 Z02
Thickness Gauge TU FR 8269 Z02
$6.04
1 Piece 9 x 12 Aluminum Sheet Metal 090 Thick11 Gauge
1 Piece 9 x 12 Aluminum Sheet Metal 090 Thick11 Gauge
$3.19
1 Piece 9 x 11 Aluminum Sheet Metal 090 Thick11 Gauge
1 Piece 9 x 11 Aluminum Sheet Metal 090 Thick11 Gauge
$3.69
1 Piece 9 x 10 Aluminum Sheet Metal 090 Thick11 Gauge
1 Piece 9 x 10 Aluminum Sheet Metal 090 Thick11 Gauge
$3.49
Mitutoyo Dial Thickness Gage No 7300
Mitutoyo Dial Thickness Gage No 7300
$94.99
NEW Precision digital thickness gauge micron 0001 127mm 000005 05inch
NEW Precision digital thickness gauge micron 0001 127mm 000005 05inch
$87.21
RM660 Coating Thickness Gauge Digital LCD Display Car Paint Meter Tester EDD US
RM660 Coating Thickness Gauge Digital LCD Display Car Paint Meter Tester EDD US
$27.50
0 10mm 0001mm Digital Tube Thickness Gauge Thicknees Anvil Deep Throat 30mm
0 10mm 0001mm Digital Tube Thickness Gauge Thicknees Anvil Deep Throat 30mm
$56.29
Vintage Kastar Thickness Feeler Gauge
Vintage Kastar Thickness Feeler Gauge
$10.00
Interchemical Thickness Gage By Gardner Lab w Case
Interchemical Thickness Gage By Gardner Lab w Case
$65.00
Vintage Unbranded Brass Thickness Feeler Gauge
Vintage Unbranded Brass Thickness Feeler Gauge
$20.00
Starrett 3812 Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge
Starrett 3812 Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge
$1,210.00
Wall Thickness Gauge for Carbon Steel Complete Kit Range 0040 600 inches
Wall Thickness Gauge for Carbon Steel Complete Kit Range 0040 600 inches
$913.00
001mm Digital Tube Thickness Gauge Thickness Anvil Deep Throat Measuring Meter
001mm Digital Tube Thickness Gauge Thickness Anvil Deep Throat Measuring Meter
$34.49
Handheld Digital LCD Ultrasonic Thickness Meter Tester Detector Measuring Gauge
Handheld Digital LCD Ultrasonic Thickness Meter Tester Detector Measuring Gauge
$97.65
RM660 Coating Thickness Gauge Handheld Digital LCD Display Car Meter Tester
RM660 Coating Thickness Gauge Handheld Digital LCD Display Car Meter Tester
$28.39
Mitutoyo 7312 Dial Thickness Gage 2412
Mitutoyo 7312 Dial Thickness Gage 2412
$26.00
NDT Systems Novascope 5000 Touchscreen Precision Thickness Gauge AS IS for Parts
NDT Systems Novascope 5000 Touchscreen Precision Thickness Gauge AS IS for Parts
$579.95
Digital Painting Thickness Tester Meter Mini LCD Car Coating Thickness Gauge sun
Digital Painting Thickness Tester Meter Mini LCD Car Coating Thickness Gauge sun
$24.62
8227 Mitutoyo Dial Thickness Gage No 7300 Never Used w Calibration Certificate
8227 Mitutoyo Dial Thickness Gage No 7300 Never Used w Calibration Certificate
$65.00
Starrett 1010E Dial Indicator Thickness Gage in Pouch in Good Condition 0005
Starrett 1010E Dial Indicator Thickness Gage in Pouch in Good Condition 0005
$145.00
ERAY Coating Paint Thickness Gauge Meter Digital Handheld for Car Automotive LCD
ERAY Coating Paint Thickness Gauge Meter Digital Handheld for Car Automotive LCD
$149.59
DGOL Round Cable Sheet Stainless Steel SWG Wire Gage Standard Thickness Metal
DGOL Round Cable Sheet Stainless Steel SWG Wire Gage Standard Thickness Metal
$10.50
LCD Digital Paint Coating Thickness Auto Tester Measuring Gauge Meter Portable
LCD Digital Paint Coating Thickness Auto Tester Measuring Gauge Meter Portable
$29.99
STARRETT Thickness Gage 172at Feeler Guage 00015 0015 In NEW
STARRETT Thickness Gage 172at Feeler Guage 00015 0015 In NEW
$30.00
HT 1200 Digital Ultrasonic Thickness Meter Tester Detector Gauge Measuring Tool
HT 1200 Digital Ultrasonic Thickness Meter Tester Detector Gauge Measuring Tool
$102.79
Defelsko Positector 6000 ADVANCED Ultrasonic Coating Thickness Gage fns
Defelsko Positector 6000 ADVANCED Ultrasonic Coating Thickness Gage fns
$550.00
RM660 Coating Thickness Gauge Digital LCD Display Car Paint Tester 0 125mm EDD
RM660 Coating Thickness Gauge Digital LCD Display Car Paint Tester 0 125mm EDD
$26.36
STARRETT No 66 THICKNESS GAGE SET WITH 26 LEAVES 0015 025
STARRETT No 66 THICKNESS GAGE SET WITH 26 LEAVES 0015 025
$59.99
General No 209 Thickness Gage 9 Leaves 0015 to 015 In Original Box
General No 209 Thickness Gage 9 Leaves 0015 to 015 In Original Box
$11.95

Recently Purchased Thickness Gage:


new starrett 66 thickness gage w 26 leaves 0015 025, starrett no 66 tapered leaves thickness gage 23 pieces, vintage amo 6 blade thickness gauge no1350, thickness measure round dial gauge gage tester leather craft pocket 010mm tb, nonferrous wire gauge sheet metal tool standard metric gold copper silver brass, elektro physik micro test fm 5 coating thickness gauge, 4step calibration block for ultrasonic thickness gauge 3mm5mm10mm15mm, sheet metal wire thickness gauge stainless steel storage sleeve diameter swg, car auto painting thickness tester paint meter coating digital measure gauge, digital painting car coating thickness gauge meter tester range 01300m, thickness gauge meter 010mm for leatherfilmmetal sheets jewelry measure, landtek tm8812 ultrasonic thickness gauge12200mm0058inch resolution 01mm, cordex ut5000 thickness gauge, perfeclan 010mm thickness gauge tester leather craft leathercraft measuring, wire gauge thickness measuring tool wiresheet metal gage measurement plate, 84cm sheet metal wire thickness gauge stainless steelsleeve wire gauge diameter, sheet metal wire thickness gauge stainless steelsleeve wire gauge diameter, perfeclan 010mm thickness meter metal sheet leather thickness gauge tools, 010mm thickness gauge high precision leather metal case tester, wire gauge thickness measuring tool wiresheet metal gage measurement plate oe, sheet metal wire thickness gauge stainless steelsleeve wire gauge diameter ga5, digital coating thickness meter tester gauge with measuring range 0 to 1300um, lcd paper leather cloth thickness gauge measuring tool 0127mm range 0001mm sp, highq cm8801fn digital paint coating thickness auto tester measuring gauge meter, 0127mm portable lcd electronic micrometer001mm digital thickness gauge meter, teclock digital thickness gauge 0120001mm smd565jl made in japan, vintage starrett no 170 001 beveled dial thickness gauge in box, steel thickness feeler gage pockit assortment 12 width 5 length 20 blades, lcd digital car paint coating thickness probe tester gauge meter measuring tool, starrett engineers taper wire amp; thickness gage 245 237 scale ruler micrometer, 010mm leather thickness metal gauge tester measure leathercraft tool craft hius, sears thinkness gauge dunlap no 4058 3 long dunlap 15blade made in usa, mitutoyo dial thickness gauge 7301 from japan, lot of 24 precision brand 19595 high carbon steel 020 thick feeler gages new, nos ames model 56221 thickness gage , nos ames model 5171 thickness gage , olympus panametrics magnamike 8600 thickness gauge, hot lcd display coating thickness gauge meter tester ec770 fast shipping, federal comparator indicator stand thickness gage 57b1, mitutoyo absolute 547500 digimatic thickness gage 547500 w 4 month warranty, metric feeler gauge gap filler 14 blade thickness measurement layout gauge, starrett 1015 b441 1000 range 001 portable dial hand gage w case, fowler digital thickness gauge 0079 0005 004 gauge for partsnon worker, brown amp; sharpe 0005 d x 25 thicknees gauge stock, mitutoyo no 186906 radius gage set partial set of 24, testex micrometer dial thickness gauge 2804f inches pressofilm tape case vguc, miller electric 229895 gage wire metal sizes, olympus panametricsndt ultrasonic precision thickness gage gauge 35dlhp, mitutoyo dial thickness gauge 010mm 7360 2391sr, one starrett 467 thickness gage leaves only not in handle tool, one starrett 172 tapered thickness gage leave only not in handle tool, one starrett 66 thickness gage leave only not in handle tool, dial thickness gage starret 1015a portable gage dial indicator 0005 12range, teclock digital thickness gauge 0120010mm smd540s2 made in japan, mitutoyo dial thickness gauge, 19 starrett 467 thickness gage leaves only not in handle tool, 29 starrett 66 thickness gage leaves only not in handle tool, mitutoyo 184313s thg0051 thickness feeler gage set 28 leaves 0051mm 100mm, vintage american instruments aminco brenner magnegage metal thickness gauge, olympus magna mike 8500 handheld thickness gauge hall effect electronic gage , 25 starrett 172 tapered thickness gage leaves only not in handle tool, digital micrometer professional inchmetric thickness measuring tools mm gauge, new 002 to 1mm 17 blade thickness gap metric filler feeler gauge measure , danatronics ehc 9 ultrasonic thickness gage, federal kp102r2 thickness gauge 00005 c71 jeweled dial, 018mm lcd digital paint film coating thickness gauge measurement tester, precision ultrasonic thickness gage gauge nova ndt systems tg930, mitutoyo 7322 2416f 0 1 dial thickness gauge daniel tikusis 7073309227